• m14-691-10
    (Telif hakkı Sart Amerikan Hafriyat Heyeti / Harvard Üniversitesi, ve G. Petzl)

2nd century AD? (letter shape)., Roma
Sardeis veya Müze Env. No.
Mermer, Taş
Eserin Türü
Yazıt Turu
Ölüyle ilgili Yazıt
Yazıt Dili
Yazıt Metni
		Κούρης γαζοφύλαξ καὶ Πλου-
		τέος Ἄπφιον ἔρξε v αὑτῇ σῆ-
		μα τόδε καὶ τροφίμοισιν
	4	ἑοῖς, v τοῖς καὶ ἐλευθερίην
		θῆκεν πάρος. Εἰ δ᾿ ἀθεμίσ-
		τως v ἐνθάδε τις θάψῃ ἀλ-
		λοδαπὸν φθίμενον, v ὡς ἀ-
	8	λιτρὸς τείσειε θε̣οῖσιν, ‹π›-
		ρόστατα Λυδῶν, v οὐ̣ατόεν
		λειτρῶν ἓξ δέπας ἀ̣ργύρε-
In verses:
		Κούρης γαζοφύλαξ καὶ Πλου/τέος Ἄπφιον ἔρξε
		    αὑτῇ σῆ/μα τόδε καὶ τροφίμοισιν / ἑοῖς, 
		τοῖς καὶ ἐλευθερίην / θῆκεν πάρος. Εἰ δ᾿ ἀθεμίσ/τως
		    ἐνθάδε τις θάψῃ ἀλ/λοδαπὸν φθίμενον,
		ὡς ἀ/λιτρὸς τείσειε θε̣οῖσιν, ‹π›/ρόστατα Λυδῶν,
		    οὐ̣ατόεν / λειτρῶν ἓξ δέπας ἀ̣ργύρε/ον.
Yazıt Çevirisi
“Apphion, the treasurer of Kore (Persephone) and Pluteus, had this tomb built for herself and for her foster-children, to whom she had formerly bestowed freedom. If anybody unlawfully buries here a foreign corpse, he should, because he is a sinner, give to the gods as a fine, o head of the Lydians, a silver goblet with handles weighing six pounds.”
Yazıt Yorumu
Bulunduğu Yeri
The left fragment is kept at the Sardis Expedition compound, IN81.011 (NoEx81.039); the right one, which was found in Allahdiyen by H. Malay during his survey in 2009, is in the Manisa Museum.

Plaque of coarse-grained white marble with gray veins. Framed by a cornice, which has been cut off at the lower edge; broken into two parts.

H. 0.60, W. ca. 0.62, max. Th. 0.11, average H. of letters 0.022.

There is a one-letter vacat after each verse.

1–2 The fact that Apphion is called treasurer of Kore and Pluteus is an additional testimony for the cult of that couple at Sardis. Men Kamarites, Pluto, and Kore are the addressees of the dedication no. 452, which is also said to come from Allahdiyen; the inscription no. 411 mentioning the ἀρχενβάται, who probably belonged to the cult of Kore, also originates from there. Does this point to the location of her sanctuary somewhere near Allahdiyen? - For Kore see nos. 447, 4–5; 723, 3; and SPRT, pp. 92–93. For Pluto and Kore in funerary curses see Strubbe, ΑΡΑΙ, no. 8.

4 Ligature PIHN

6 θάψῃ: probably not aorist subjunctive but itacistic spelling of future indicative θάψει; cf. θελήσῃ no. 692, 10–11, and, for the opposite phenomenon, no. 673, 3–4 comm.

6–7 The ἀλλοδαπὸς φθίμενος corresponds to the ἀλλότριος νεκρός (e.g., IGSK 23 [Smyrna], no. 253, 6–7) or to the ἀλλότριον (IGSK 23, no. 214, 6)/ἐξωτικὸν πτῶμα (IGSK 23, no. 219, 6).

8–11 It is not clear whom Apphion addresses as head of the Lydians (<π>ρόστατα Λυδῶν, neglecting the syllabification; Α/ΡΟΣΤΑΤΑ, the stone) who would have to enforce the fine. Petzl, in the ed. pr., suggested a poetic designation of Sardis; in her title, the city is called μητρόπολις τῆς Ἀσίας καὶ Λυδίας ἁπάσης καὶ Ἑλλάδος. C. P. Jones, per litt., considers that Zeus Lydios, whose name is known from coins from Sardis and Kidrama (L. Robert, Villes, p. 298 n. 2; and L. and J. Robert, La Carie II, p. 76) is here the προστάτης Λυδῶν.

Apphion stipulates that the illegal user of her tomb has to give to the gods (i.e., probably to Kore and Pluteus whose treasurer was Apphion) a silver goblet of the weight of six pounds as fine. The goblet had to be of a special shape, namely showing two “ears,” i.e., handles.

For fines stated in pounds (sign of devaluation of the currency from the middle of the third century onward), see Strubbe, ΑΡΑΙ, no. 140, 12 comm.; ibid., no. 366, Index 5, s.v. Fines in silver pounds/gold coins; L. Robert, Hellenica III, pp. 106–7; D. Feissel, TravMém. 10 (1987), pp. 429–30, no. 46 (= SEG 37, 1072; Nikomedeia), l. 12; SEG 49, 1827 = Ameling, Inscr. Jud. Or. II, pp. 406–8, no. 191, B 6–7 (Hierapolis, ca. 200 AD).

Ayrıca bakınız
Left fragment: Herrmann, ms.; both fragments assembled: G. Petzl, “Leben abseits der Zentren. Religion und Kultur im ländlichen Lydien” (in Der Beitrag Kleinasiens zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte der griechisch-römischen Antike, ed. J. Fischer [2014], pp. 301–7) pp. 301–3, with photographs p. 307 (SEG 64, 1193).