by George M.A. Hanfmann, Stephen W. Jacobs, and Nancy H. Ramage
The second in the series of final reports of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, this volume is devoted to stone sculpture, most of which comes from the finds of the present Sardis Expedition made in the years 1958 through 1975. In an attempt to make the study as comprehensive as present knowledge allows, the authors have included sculpture found by the first Sardis expedition (1910-1914) and other pieces from Sardis scattered among a number of museums.
The organization, scope, and development of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, a joint effort of the Fogg Museum of Harvard University and Cornell University, are described in the preface of our first report, Sardis R1 (1975). An informal account of the development of the expedition is found in Letters from Sardis (1972) by George M. A. Hanfmann.
We are deeply grateful to the Government of the Turkish Republic for the privilege of working at Sardis. The Department of Antiquities and Museums, formerly under the Ministry of the Prime Minister and now under the Ministry of Culture, and the Directors General, their officers, and representatives of the Department have been unfailing in their help. We want to thank particularly the present Director General, Hikmet Gürçay, who has been a friend of the Sardis Expedition for many years.
In connection with this volume we owe a special debt to the successive directors of the Archaeological Museum, Manisa, Kemal Ziya Polatkan and Kubilây Nayır, and their staff, who have cooperated at every juncture and have assisted us by making items in storage available for study and photography.
The excavation and study of this material have been made possible by grants and contributions extending over two decades from the Bollingen Foundation (1959-1965), the Old Dominion Foundation (1966-1968), the Loeb Classical Library Foundation (1965-1970), the Wenner Gren Foundation for Anthropological Work (1967), the Charles E. Merrill Trust (1973), the Ford Foundation (1968-1972), and the Billy Rose Foundation (1970-1976). Donations were also received through the American Schools of Oriental Research, a longtime sponsor of the Sardis project. The Corning Museum of Glass, a participating institution, made annual grants from 1960 through 1972, and Cornell University contributed university funds from 1957 through 1968. Much of the Harvard contribution came from the group of Supporters of Sardis, established in 1957, which includes both individuals and foundations. We owe the continuity of our work to their enthusiasm and generosity, and particularly to the advice and support of James R. Cherry, Landon T. Clay, John B. Elliott, Mrs. George C. Reiser, Thomas B. Lemann, and Norbert Schimmel.
As part of the general Sardis program, the work on sculpture benefited from a grant in Turkish currency made by the Department of State to the President and Fellows of Harvard College for the years 1962 through 1965.1 A series of research grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, largely on a matching basis, has played a key role since 1967 in sustaining the Sardis program.2 The work published in this volume was made possible through the assistance of these grants. In accordance with the wishes of the Endowment, we point out that the findings and conclusions presented here do not necessarily represent the views of the Endowment. We express our gratitude to the Endowment and its Division of Research for their valuable support.
The authors want to thank Florence E. Whitmore, Senior Technical Associate, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, for her willingness to contribute a report on the examination of marble samples, undertaken in collaboration with William J. Young, then Head of the Research Laboratory. In this connection we are also indebted to the team from the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Dario Monna, Luigi Pieruccini, and Maurizio Felici, who communicated to us their observations on the Sardis quarries, and to David A. Young, New York University, who made preliminary examinations of samples. For determination of other stones we are indebted to Erol Izdar, Ege University, Izmir, and to Clifford Frondel, Harvard University. At Sardis, conservators Lawrence J. Majewski, Phillip A. Lins, Richard E. Stone, J. Burriss Young, and their colleagues in the laboratory did much valiant work in examination and restoration, often under less than ideal conditions. Our study and restoration of sculpture were also aided by members of our architectural team, notably Mehmet C. Bolgil, Fikret K. Yegül, and Teoman Yalçınkaya. W e are indebted to Elizabeth Gombosi for most of the photographs taken since 1968. Drawings for this volume were made by Mehmet C. Bolgil, Elaine K. Gazda, Rosemary Jones, Elizabeth Wahle, Fikret K. Yegül, Stuart L. Carter, and Nancy H. Ramage.
Curators of many museums have been most cooperative in giving permission to publish, in supplying photographs, and in offering information and advice on pieces from Sardis and comparative material. In addition to our colleagues at the Archaeological Museum, Manisa, we should like to thank Necati Dolunay, Nezih Fıratlı, and Güldem Yüğrüm, Archaeological Museum, Istanbul; Hakki Gultekin, Musa Baran, and Muhsin Yenim, Archaeological Museum, Izmir; O. A. Taşyürek, Adana Regional Museum; Huberta Heres, Staatliche Museen, Berlin; Dorothy K. Hill, The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore; Frances F. Jones, The Art Museum, Princeton University; Richard Nicholls, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; Denys E. L. Haynes and Brian Cook, The British Museum, London; H. J. Case and Michael Vickers, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; Dietrich von Bothmer and Joan Mertens, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Francois Baratte, Musée du Louvre, Paris; and Estelle Brettman of the Archaeological Institute of America, Boston Society.
To the generosity of Richard Stillwell and his predecessors in charge of the Sardis archive at Princeton, we owe photographs and data on pieces found by the first Sardis expedition and permission to use them.
For helpful information and the benefit of their opinions on a great variety of matters, the authors are indebted to Elizabeth Alföldi-Rosenbaum, J. K. Anderson, Anton Bammer, the late Giovanni Becatti, Paul Bernard, Dericksen M. Brinkerhoff, Hubertus von Gall, Elaine K. Gazda, Virginia R. Grace, Evelyn B. Harrison, Albert Henrichs, Ulrich Hiesinger, Caroline Houser, Mary A. Littauer, Machteld J. Mellink, Hans Möbius, John G. Pedley, Edith Porada, Brunilde S. Ridgway, Georges Roux, Dorothy B. Thompson, Robert W. Thomson, John B. Ward-Perkins, and Fritz Wehrli.
Our epigraphic colleagues Louis and Jeanne Robert, Glen Bowersock, Roberto Gusmani, Christopher Jones, and Clive Foss have advised us on inscriptions and provided epigraphic information. We are grateful for advice in zoology to Charles A. Reed, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, and R. W. Redding, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and in ornithology to Deborah V. Howard, Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln. A particular debt is owed to our Sardis colleagues Crawford H. Greenewalt, jr., David G. Mitten, Andrew Ramage, Ilse Hanfmann, Kenneth J. Frazer, A. Thomas Kraabel, Andrew R. Seager, and Ruth S. Thomas, who gave freely of their special knowledge of various facets of the Sardis evidence.
In addition, G. M. A. Hanfmann wishes to record special thanks to the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, where he spent his sabbatical from 1971 to 1972 writing his part of this book. To Homer A. Thompson and his colleagues at the School of Historical Studies, he owes many stimulating comments. As assistant at Princeton on a research grant from Harvard University, Jane C. Waldbaum, now of the University of Wisconsin, worked on the catalogue and the first draft of the Lydian and Persian sections.
At the Sardis Research facility in Cambridge, under the supervision of Jane A. Scott, Head of Publications Research, Electra D. Yorsz had the major share in readying the manuscript for publication and compiled the index. Jane Scott also contributed to several catalogue items. Elizabeth Wahle and Elizabeth Gombosi assisted in assembling illustrations; Wendy H. Barensfeld and Charlene A. Morris helped with the manuscript typing.
We are especially grateful to Dr. Franklin D. Murphy and Mary M. Davis of the Kress Foundation and to our colleagues in the Department of the Classics, Harvard University, for their sympathetic interest in the Sardis publications.
The publication of this volume was made possible by subvention grants received from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, the Loeb Classical Library Foundation, and the Sardis Publication Fund of the Fogg Art Museum.