• m14-318-10
    Overview of Stele (From Malay, Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the Manisa Museum, fig. 227A.)
  • m14-318-20
    Detail of Pediment of Stele (lines 1-10) (From Malay, Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the Manisa Museum, fig. 227B.)
  • m14-318-30
    Detail of Stele (lines 11-24) (From Malay, Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the Manisa Museum, fig. 227C.)
  • m14-318-40
    Detail of Stele (lines 21-48) (From Malay, Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the Manisa Museum, fig. 227D.)
  • m14-318-50
    Detail of stele (lines 49-56). (From Malay, Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the Manisa Museum, fig. 227E.)

Inscribed Stele with Six Texts: Dedication; Edict of Governor (Latin and Greek); Two Honorifics; Letter

Inscriptions (b) and (d) date most probably to 136 AD (J. Nollé and W. Eck, Chiron 26 [1996], p. 267; others propose 134/35 AD); inscription (f) dates to early in the reign of Antoninus Pius., Roman
Manisa, Archaeological and Ethnographic Museum, 7711
Museum Inventory No.
Sardis or Museum Inv. No.
Manisa 7711
Marble, Stone
Object Type
Stele, Inscription
Inscription Type
Letter or Dossier Containing Letters, Decisions, Petitions, Subscriptiones, Honors
Inscription language
Greek, Latin
Inscription Text
(a) Dedication by Metras to Zeus Driktes
		            ρου ἱερεὺς δι-
	4	         ὰ γένους Διὸς
		       Δρικτου καὶ τοῦ δήμου
		      τοῦ Θαμορειτῶν αἰτη-
		    σάμενος πανήγυριν Ἀριλλη-
	8	  νοῖς εὐξάμενος Διὶ Δρικτῃ
		ἐπιτυχὼν εὐχὴν ἀνέθηκα
		            τὴν στήλλην.

(b) Edict of the governor Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus
		T(itus) Aurelius Ful<v>us Boeonius
	12	Antoninus proco(n)s(ul) dic(it). Metras
		Metrodori et Isidorus Isidori
		nom(ine) vicanorum Arhillon			4
		adierunt me petieruntque
	16	uti eis permitterem mercatum
		instituere et habere semel in
		anno diebus continuis vvvv			8
		septem ex XII k(alendas) Octobr(es) in VI
	20	k(alendas) easdem. Qua de re si quis peti-
		tioni eius contradicere vo-
		let, intra diem tricensimum			12
		me aut successorem meum
	24	c(larissimum) v(irum) adeat. vvvv Proponi volo.

(c) Honorific inscription for Metras
		Μητρᾶν τὸν εἱερῆ ἐτείμησεν
		ὁ δῆμος χρυσῷ στεφάνῳ διὰ γένου.

(d) Greek translation of the edict (b)
		Τ(ίτος) Αὐρήλιος Φοῦλβος Βοιώνιος
	28	Ἀντωνεῖνος ἀνθύ(πατος) λέγει·
		Μητρᾶς Μητροδώρου καὶ Εἰσί-
		δωρος Εἰσιδώρου ὀνόματι			4
		κώμης Ἀριλλων προσῆλθόν
	32	μοι ᾐτήσαντό τε, ἵνα αὐτοῖς
		ἐπιτρέψω πανήγυριν ἄγειν
		καὶ ἔχειν ἅπαξ ἐν τῷ ἐνιαυτῷ			8
		ἡμέραις ἐφεξῆς ἑπτὰ ἀπὸ
	36	τῆς πρὸ ιβ´καλ(ανδῶν) Ὀκτωβρίων
		μέχρι τῆς πρὸ ἓξ καλ(ανδῶν) τῶν
		αὐτῶν. περὶ οὗ εἴ τις τῇ αἰτή-			12
		σει αὐτῶν ἀντιλέγειν βού-
	40	λεται, ἐντὸς τριακοστῆς ἡ-
		μέρας ἐμοὶ ἢ τῷ τειμιωτάτῳ
		μου διαδόχῳ ἐντυχέτω.				16
		v προτεθῆναι βούλομαι.

(e) Honorific inscription for Tatia
	44	Ὁ δῆμος ἐτείμησε Τατίαν
		εἱέρειαν χρυσῷ στεφάνῳ
		           διὰ γένου.

(f) Letter of Asinius Rufus to Sardis
		Ἀσίνιος Ῥοῦφος Σαρδιανῶν ἄρχουσι χαίρειν· [ἡ Ἀριλ]-
	48	ληνῶν κώμη προσήκουσά μοι ἐ(κ) προγόνων, [ὡς ἐπίσ]-
		τασθε, ἔγραψέ μοι παρακαλοῦσα, ὅπως ἐ[ντεύ]-
		ξομαι τῷ αὐτοκράτορι περὶ [ . . ]Ο̣Υ̣ΟΥ καὶ δημοσ̣[  οὐκ(?) ἐ]-	4
		πεὶ δύσκολον ἦν μοι ἐ[ν]τυχε[ῖν τ]ῷ ΑΥΤ[	  ]
	52	ΑΛΛΟΤΙ διαβάλλον ἦν ὑμᾶς [ . . . ]Σ̣ΤΑΣΑ[		]
		πανηγύρεις πένπετε, τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ Κ̣[			]
		σῃ οὐ πένπετε, τῶν αὐτῶν καὶ ΤΑΥΤ[			]	8
		ἀξιωθῆναι δικαίων. ἐρῶσθαι ἡμ[ᾶς(?) βούλομαι(?)]
	56	πανοικεί.
Inscription Translation
(a) “I, Metras, son of Metrodoros, hereditary priest of Zeus Driktes and of the People of the Thamoreitai, asked for a market for the Arhillenoi and prayed to Zeus Driktes; upon success I dedicated the stele as a vow.”
(b)/(d) “Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boeonius Antoninus, proconsul, says: Metras, son of Metrodoros, and Isidoros, son of Isidoros, have come to me and petitioned in the name of the villagers of Arhilla (/-oi, /-ai) that I should permit (them) to establish and to hold a fair once a year continuing seven days, from the twelfth before the kalendae of October until the sixth before the same kalendae [= September 20–26]. If, concerning this, anyone will intend to contradict their petition, he should appeal within thirty days to me or to my most honorable successor. I want this to be published.”
(c) “The People honors Metras, the priest, and his posterity with a golden wreath.”
(e) “The People honors Tatia, the priestess, and her posterity with a golden wreath.”
(f) “Asinius Rufus to the magistrates of the Sardians, greetings. The village of the Arhillenoi belonging to me (or: “over which I have the patronage”) from my ancestors [as you know] wrote to me and asked that I should appeal to the emperor on behalf of [- - -] and public(?)[- - Not(?) that] it would be difficult for me to appeal to the [emperor(?)], but because(?) it would bring discredit to you, that you are sending (an embassy?) [for(?)] the [other] markets but you are not sending (an embassy?) to the one [established(?)] by the [(present) emperor(?), I ask you(?)] that this one (i.e., the market of the Arhillenoi) too should be esteemed worthy of the same rights [as the others(?). I wish that] you(?) and your household are doing well.”
Inscription Comment
From near Yeniköy (Kepez Mevkii), north of the Gygaean Lake.

Stele of marble with triangular pediment. The top acroterion and the right lower part of the stele are missing. Inscription (a) is in the pediment (l. 10 on its lower band), and the other texts are on the shaft. The text shows different scripts; it had been engraved in four different stages by different masons.

H. 2.19, W. 0.69, Th. 0.14, H. of letters 0.02.

Critical notes: (a) (l. 9): εὐχήν correctly de Ligt; dropped by the other editions. - (b) (l. 11): after FVL the stone has a one-letter vacat followed by VS; looking at the Greek equivalent Φοῦλβος ([d], l. 27), the mason may have been uncertain whether he had to write FVLBVS or FVLVVS (the latter was possibly the spelling of the Latin manuscript). The doubted letter was probably later painted in the free space. - In (c) and (e), which are written by the same hand, the Σ is inverted. - (d) (l. 29): ligature ΜΗΤΡΟΔ. - l. 37: ΤΗΣ: 3-bar sigma (normally 4-bar). - (f) (l. 55): ligature ΘΗΝΑΙ.

For commentaries see the literature referred to in the lemma and Schuler, Ländliche Siedlungen (references in the index p. 323 s.v. Ἀριλληνῶν κώμη); J. Nollé and W. Eck, Chiron 26 (1996), pp. 267–73; J. Nollé, “Marktrechte außerhalb der Stadt…,” in Lokale Autonomie und römische Ordnungsmacht…, ed. W. Eck (1999), pp. 93–113, particularly pp. 99ff.; L. de Ligt, “Governmental Attitudes toward Markets and Collegia,” in Mercati permanenti e mercati periodici nel mondo romano, ed. E. Lo Cascio (2000), pp. 237–52, esp. p. 239 (in the following: “L3”); Dignas, Economy, pp. 167–69; P. M. Nigdelis and G. A. Suris, Anthypatos legei (2005), pp. 123–24, no. 11, on (b) and (d).


It seems that Metras was priest of a cult whose addressees were Zeus Driktes and the People of the Thamoreitai. Dignas understands differently: “hereditary priest of Zeus Drikte(s) and from the demos of the Thamoreitai.” For Zeus Driktes/Drittes see nos. 438 and 666, 2–8 comm. A. Chaniotis (SEG 56) assumes that Δρικτου/Δριττου could be the genitive of the name of the cult founder; the dative Διὶ (Δεὶ) Δρικτῃ (here l. 8 and no. 438) rules out that possibility.

(b) and (d)

11 Boeonius: The correct Latin form would be Boionius.

21 eius: the Greek version has the correct plural αὐτῶν in l. 39.

31 κώμης Ἀριλλων (cf. l. 14 vicanorum Arhillon): Malay, p. 154, with nn. 204–5, refers to the inscription IGRR IV 1349, 18–19, where a πρόπυλον ΑΡΙΛΛΩΝ σὺν κοσμήμασιν καὶ δένδ[ρε]/σιν is mentioned; cf. Schuler, Ländliche Siedlungen, p. 275 n. 15. It seems a safe assumption that, like in the present inscription, ΑΡΙΛΛΩΝ is the genitive of the toponym Ἀριλλα (-οι, -αι). The findspot of IGRR IV 1349 is the ancient site of Asartepe (Hisartepe), north of Urganlı, southwest of the Gygaean Lake (see Foss, ClAnt 1 (1982), pp. 190–93, 197).

K. Buresch’s identification of Asartepe with Mostene (Aus Lydien, p. 134) is unfounded, see Keil-Premerstein I, pp. 6, 13–14; they attribute Asartepe hypothetically to the territory of a πόλις near Derbent and Gökkaya, apparently Tmolos-Aureliopolis. See also C. Foss, ClAnt 1 (above), pp. 178–201, who identifies Asartepe with the Late Antique-Medieval Perikomma (pp. 186–87, 192). In the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Map 56, “Arilla” is located near the northeastern shore of the Gygaean Lake.

(c) and (e)

Both texts were written by the same hand (different from the preceding ones), later, in the free spaces between (b) and (d), and (d) and (f). Some commentators suggest that Tatia was the wife of Metras.

26 and 46 γένου instead of γένους (see l. 4).


The letter of Asinius Rufus, probably a member of the Sardian Asinii (see no. 401), is the latest entry and dates probably to the early reign of Antoninus Pius. L. de Ligt, AncSoc 27 (1996), p. 166 n. 5: “The Asinius Rufus referred to…may be identical with the L. Asinius Rufus who was legatus proconsulis in Africa Proconsularis in about AD 110 (J. M. Reynolds and J. B. Ward-Perkins, eds., Inscr. Rom. Tripolitania [1952], p. 537).” Nollé and Eck, p. 272: “…könnte ein Verwandter, möglicherweise sogar der Vater des Briefschreibers sein” (referring to PIR2 A 1248). They assume that he belonged to the ordo equester or senatorius and was officiating somewhere abroad when he wrote the letter to the Sardian magistrates.

Because of its fragmentary state, there are various reconstructions of its contents. I quote here Dignas’s summary (p. 168), which may have to be modified in parts: “…a few years after the annual market had been granted to the community, Sardes approached the emperor to confirm the rights of other rural markets within its territory but not those of the Arhillenoi. The villagers therefore asked Asinius Rufus, who was either the patron or owner of the territory, to do this on their behalf; as he did not want to discredit the Sardians, Asinius Rufus instead encouraged them to correct their misbehaviour themselves, that is to include the Arhillenoi in their petitions.”

If not stated otherwise the supplements are Malay’s:

48 ἐ(κ) προγόνων: Nollé and Eck, p. 270 n. 9 refer for the “extremely rare” phenomenon of ἐ instead of ἐκ, ἐξ, ἐγ, to L. Threatte, Grammar Attic Inscr. I 587; see also E. Mayser and H. Schmoll, Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemäerzeit I, 1 (21970), p. 200, § 52, A 5.

49–50 ἐ[ντεύ]/ξομαι: Malay (or ἐ[πιδεί]/ξομαι), de Ligt, AncSoc 27 (1996), pp. 163–69 (in the following: “L2”), Nollé and Eck; ἐ[γὼ ἐντεύ]/ξομαι: de Ligt (L1).

50–51 περὶ [ . . ]Ο̣Υ̣ΟΥ καὶ δημοσ̣[ οὐκ(?) ἐ]/πεί: περ̣[ὶ ca. 4]Ω̣Ρ̣ΟΥ καὶ ΔΗΜΟΣ̣[- οὐκ ἐ]/πεί Malay (“Perhaps περ[ὶ τοῦ χ]ώρου or περ[ὶ τοῦ φ]όρου followed by καὶ δημοσ[ίων (῾public dues᾿) or δημοσ[ίας (scil. γῆς)?”); περ̣[ὶ οὗ ca. 3/4]ΟΥ καὶ δημόσ̣[ιόν τι ἦν ἐ]πεί L1; περ̣[ὶ ? βιβλι]δ̣ί̣ου καὶ δημοσ̣[ίου, οὐκ ἐ]/πεί L2; περ[ὶ τοῦ χ]ώ̣ρ̣ου καὶ δήμο̣υ. [οὐκ ἐ]/πεί Nollé and Eck; περ[ὶ τοῦ χ]ώ̣ρ̣ου καὶ δήμο̣υ [ᾧ, οὐκ ἐ]/πεί L3, p. 239 n. 10.

51 ΑΥΤ[ ]: Αὐτ[οκράτορι] Malay, L2, Nollé and Eck; αὐτ[ ca. 5/6 καὶ] L1.

52 ΑΛΛΟΤΙ: ἀλλ᾿ ὅτι Malay, L2, Nollé and Eck; ἄλλο τι L1. - ὑμᾶς [ . . . ]Σ̣ΤΑΣΑ[ ]: ὑμᾶς Ο̣[ 2–3 ]Σ τὰς Α[ ] Malay (“perhaps ὅ[τι εἰ]ς τὰς ἄ[λλας πέριξ (or αὐτόθι?)”], similarly L2; ὑμᾶς, ὡ̣[ς εἰ]ς τὰς ἄ[λλας μέν] Nollé and Eck; ὑμᾶς ὅ[τι ca. 2]Σ̣ΤΑΣΑ[ ca. 9 ] L1.

53–54 τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ Κ̣[ ]/σῃ: “Perhaps τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ κ[υρίου ἀχθεί]/σῃ οὐ πένπετε,” etc., Malay; ὑπὸ τοῦ κ[?οινοῦ ἀχθεί]/σῃ L1; ὑπὸ τοῦ κ[υρίου δοθεί]/σῃ L1, (“meaning ‘given by the present emperor at the time when he was proconsul Asiae’” L2, p. 239 n. 11); Nollé and Eck.

54 ΤΑΥΤ[ ]: ταύτ[ην scil. τὴν πανήγυριν … ] Malay; ταύτ[αις δεόμενοι] L1, L2; ταύτ[ην αἰτοῦμαι] Nollé and Eck; ταύτ[ην αἰτῶ δι᾿ ὑμῶν] / ἀξιωθῆναι L3, p. 239 n. 10.

55 ἡμ[ᾶς] instead of ὑμ[ᾶς]? (Malay). - ἡμ[ᾶς βούλομαι]: Malay, L1, L2; ἡμ[ᾶς εὔχομαι] Nollé and Eck.

See Also
Malay, Manisa Museum, pp. 152–56, no. 523, pls. 86–88, figs. 227 A–E (L. De Ligt, EpAnat 24 [1995], pp. 37–54 [in the following: “L1”; for “L2” see the note on ll. 49–50, for “L3” see the introductory note on the commentaries]; SEG 44, 977; AE 1994, 1645; AE 1995, 1462; AE 1996, 1454).